What is Diabetes? Causes, Symptoms, and Treatments Explained for Middle School Students


What is Diabetes?

Diabetes is a chronic condition characterized by high levels of glucose (sugar) in the blood. Our bodies break down carbohydrates from food into glucose, which is then absorbed into the bloodstream. Glucose plays a crucial role as an energy source for our bodies.

The amount of glucose in the blood is controlled by a hormone called insulin, which is secreted by the pancreas. Insulin works to lower blood sugar levels. In diabetes, there is a problem with the action of insulin, leading to persistently high blood sugar levels.

Causes of Diabetes

Diabetes is primarily classified into two types:

  1. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disorder in which the body’s immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas. As a result, insufficient insulin is produced, causing blood sugar levels to rise. Genetic factors are believed to play a role in the development of type 1 diabetes.
  2. Type 2 diabetes, on the other hand, occurs when the body becomes resistant to the effects of insulin, even though insulin is still being produced. This condition is called insulin resistance. Consequently, insulin is less effective at lowering blood sugar levels. Risk factors for type 2 diabetes include obesity, lack of physical activity, older age, and genetics.

Symptoms of Diabetes

Typical symptoms of diabetes include:

  1. Increased thirst: High blood sugar levels lead to increased urination, causing frequent thirst.
  2. Frequent urination: To lower blood sugar, the kidneys excrete excess glucose into the urine, increasing urine output.
  3. Weight loss: When insulin is lacking, the body cannot effectively use glucose for energy, leading to weight loss.
  4. Fatigue: Insufficient energy supply leads to increased tiredness.
  5. Blurred vision: Persistently high blood sugar levels can cause the lens of the eye to become cloudy, resulting in blurred vision.

However, in the early stages, diabetes may be asymptomatic, making regular health check-ups important.

Complications of Diabetes

If left untreated, diabetes can lead to serious complications:

  1. Retinopathy: High blood sugar damages the blood vessels in the retina, increasing the risk of vision loss or blindness.
  2. Nephropathy: High blood sugar impairs kidney function, potentially leading to the need for dialysis.
  3. Neuropathy: High blood sugar can cause nerve damage, resulting in numbness or reduced sensation in the hands and feet.
  4. Cardiovascular disease: Accelerated atherosclerosis increases the risk of heart attack and stroke.

Early detection and proper blood sugar control are crucial for preventing these complications.

Treatment of Diabetes

While diabetes is a chronic condition that is difficult to cure completely, proper treatment can help prevent complications and enable a healthy life. Treatment options include:

  1. Dietary therapy: Paying attention to calorie and carbohydrate intake and maintaining a balanced diet.
  2. Exercise therapy: Regular physical activity improves insulin sensitivity and helps lower blood sugar levels.
  3. Medication: Insulin or oral diabetes medications are used to control blood sugar levels.
  4. Self-management: Regular blood sugar monitoring and check-ups for early detection of complications.

It is essential to develop a personalized treatment plan for each patient and to continue treatment in collaboration with a healthcare team.


Diabetes is a chronic condition characterized by persistently high blood sugar levels, which can lead to serious complications. There are two main types, type 1 and type 2, and symptoms include increased thirst, frequent urination, weight loss, and more. With proper treatment and self-management, complications can be prevented, and a healthy life can be maintained.

Maintaining healthy lifestyle habits and undergoing regular health check-ups are important. If you or a family member is diagnosed with diabetes, work closely with your doctor and healthcare team to actively engage in treatment. It is crucial to learn to live well with diabetes while enjoying a fulfilling daily life.