Understanding Negative Interest Rates: A Simple Explanation for Kids


Today, we’ll talk about “negative interest rates,” a term you might have heard on the news recently. But before we dive into that, let’s make sure we understand what “interest rates” are.


What are Interest Rates?

Interest rates are like a “fee” you pay to use someone else’s money when you borrow it. For example, when you borrow money from a bank, you have to pay back the amount you borrowed plus a little extra. This extra amount is called interest, and the rate at which you pay it is called the interest rate.

What are Negative Interest Rates?

Negative interest rates are a bit different. Instead of the person borrowing the money paying interest, the person lending the money (like a bank) has to pay interest. It’s like the opposite of what usually happens!

Why Do We Have Negative Interest Rates?

When the economy is not doing well, people tend to spend less money. This can cause the economy to slow down. To help fix this, central banks might introduce negative interest rates. This makes it easier for banks to lend money, which encourages people to borrow and spend more. As a result, the economy starts to grow again.

Advantages of Negative Interest Rates

  1. Lower loan interest rates: With negative interest rates, the interest rates on mortgages and other loans go down. This means that people who borrow money have to pay back less, making it easier for them.
  2. Companies can invest more easily: When interest rates are low, companies are more likely to borrow money to invest in new factories or create new products. This helps the economy grow.

Disadvantages of Negative Interest Rates

  1. Banks earn less money: With negative interest rates, banks have to pay interest instead of receiving it. This means they make less money, which can be bad for the economy if banks start to struggle.
  2. Less incentive to save money: When interest rates on savings accounts are low, people have less reason to save their money in the bank.


Negative interest rates can be helpful for people who want to borrow money, but they can be challenging for banks that lend money. It’s a special way to try and improve the economy when it’s not doing well. However, just because interest rates are low doesn’t mean you should borrow money without a plan. It’s always important to be careful with your money!